Glossary of the dog food

Here is a little lexicon that will allow you to understand the nature of the products sold, their components and the notions on the packaging:
Amino acids : basic elements for the production of proteins by the body. There are twenty-two kinds, of which ten must be present in the diet of the dog (eleven in the diet of the cat) because it does not synthesize. Whole foods are supplemented with amino acids so as not to cause lack.
Additive : according to their nature and intended utility, there are several types of additives: zootechnical additives (antibiotics , coccidiostats, growth factors...), so-called "nutritional" (vitamins, trace elements...), and so-called "technological" (preservatives, antioxidants, dyes...).
Food with a special nutritional (or dietary) purpose : this type of food satisfies specific nutritional requirements
Complementary food : it is not a food that can provide the daily ration alone; it is intended to supplement other foods
Complete food : sufficient food to provide a daily ration
Mineral food : food consisting mainly of minerals. Dry food: food with a water content of less than 14%
Appetence : ability of a food to be readily consumed by the animal. Manufacturers are working hard on this aspect, especially for kibbles
Energy requirements : the amount of calories needed for dog maintenance and activities. Fats are the components that provide the most energy. 1g of fat provides 9 calories, 1g of protein or carbohydrate, 4 calories. Dieting foods are very low in fat.
Crude ashes : minerals or minerals in foods. About 30% are assimilated. The more minerals in the food, the less digestible it is. Hard-to-assimilate feeds contain little.
CMV : Mineral and vitamin supplement. It is a special category of complementary food, which is mixed with the food
Dietetics : this qualifier is reserved for foods with a particular nutritional purpose
DGCCRF : General Directorate competition, consumption and the repression of fraud. This department, under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance, controls and verifies the compliance of feed with the regulations
Metabolisable energy : part of the gross energy of the food actually used by the organization
Digestive Enzyme : protein responsible for the digestion of a particular molecule. For example, the amylase enzyme converts starch into glucose.
Water Balance: The water content of the body. Depending on age, the body is 70 to 80% water. Below this proportion, there may be dehydration
Fibers : non-digestible carbohydrates (example: cellulose, pectin...). Non-fermentable fibers facilitate intestinal transit; the fermentable fibers promote a good intestinal flora, essential for the proper functioning of the large intestine. Old dogs need fiber to facilitate transit.
Average daily gain : extra weight (in grams) taken each day by the puppy. For example, a St. Bernard takes 200 to 300 g per day between 3 and 4 months.
Digestible Carbohydrates : They are represented by cereal starch. This starch must be well cooked to be digested by the animal.
High digestibility : quality of the food that provides the maximum benefit to the animal, for the minimum waste. A high-end food with 80% digestibility means that 80% of the ingested material will be useful to the body and only 20% will be eliminated by natural means (excrement or stool, also called "feces").
Ingredients : raw materials used in the manufacture of the product. Each ingredient aims to provide one or more categories of nutrients
Lipids : animal or vegetable fats. They have two major roles: to supply essential fatty acids, and to provide an energy source in concentrated form.
Dry matter : percentage of the ration given to the dog, once the moisture content in the latter has been removed . It is this dry part that contains the nutrients necessary for feeding the animal. Croquettes contain 86 to 92% dry matter; canned foods, 20 to 30% dry matter
Metabolism : all the syntheses (anabolism) and degradations (catabolism) that take place in the body. Examples: protein anabolism refers to the synthesis of proteins from amino acids; catabolism of starch, degradation of starch to give glucose
Nutrients : unitary elements used by the body. A food contains several ingredients (meat, cereals...); each ingredient consists of several nutrients that will be separated in the digestive system (they will be digested). Each nutrient has a distinct role in the functioning of the body
Pepsin : digestive enzyme allowing the transformation of proteins in the stomach.
Proteins : assembly of amino acids entering the composition of all tissues and organs (heart, liver, kidneys...). Examples: beef protein, poultry protein, vegetable protein. Animal proteins are, in general, the most digestible for dogs
Free radicals : substances naturally produced by the body and responsible for aging (oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids constituting cell membranes)
Bile salts : produced by the gall bladder, these salts make it possible to emulsify fats or lipids to facilitate their digestion.
Physiological stage : stage of the animal's life determined by its age, sex, lifestyle, environment... Example: puppy, lactating bitch, competition dog, older dog, etc.
Gastric juice : substance that digests proteins. This juice is very acidic, hence its role of antiseptic: few germs resist it, which is why the dog can digest carrion, meats damaged, drink water stagnant puddles...
Pancreatic juice : essential for digestion, this juice degrades the starch and transforms it for the purpose of digestion. It also participates in the digestion of lipids and proteins. Pancreatic insufficiency can therefore have serious consequences on the health of the dog.

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